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June 20, 2024

Developmental Stages of the Typical Child and the Child with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) [Infographic]

Navigating the developmental stages of childhood and adolescence can be challenging, especially for children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). This infographic provides a detailed comparison between the typical behaviors observed in children at different developmental stages and those exhibited by children with ODD. From preschool to high school, the infographic highlights key differences, offering insights into how ODD manifests and evolves over time.

By understanding these distinctions, parents, educators, and caregivers can better support children with ODD, fostering environments that promote positive development and effective management of the disorder. Dive into this informative visual guide to learn more about the unique challenges and needs of children with ODD.

Preschool Age

Typical Child

  • Full of energy and likes to ask “Why?”
  • Wants to do things him or herself
  • Beginning to want to play around to with other children
  • Ready to learn the limits of expected behavior and accepted actions

Child with ODD

  • Struggles to accept “no” and limits on behavior
  • Near daily tantrums
  • consistently resorts to screaming and throwing things when given directions

Elementary Age

Typical Child

  • Very active but needs quiet time
  • Tends to respect adults
  • More give-and-take relationships with peers and enjoys time with friends
  • Likes to be helpful at home and school
  • Beginning to assert independence

Child with ODD

  • May refuse outright to follow directions
  • Insists on doing things his or her own way, even if that hasn’t worked in the past
  • Struggles to get along with peers in appropriate ways

Middle School Age

Typical Student

  • Enjoys being around peers, but may be uncertain about how to navigate social currents
  • Lots of energy, physically and mentally
  • May both act like a child at times and then as an older teen at other times
  • Struggles with planning and organizing
  • Wants to understand the reason behind rules and expectations

Student with ODD

  • Major struggles with peer interactions
  • May appear angry or annoyed with others nearly all the time
  • Seem to be rebellious toward most adults, unless a relationship is formed with one or two

High School Age

Typical Teen

  • Prefers being around friends to adults or to being alone
  • Wants to be an individual while also being part of the group
  • Beginning to use more planning skills and to think through actions
  • Can be rebellious, indifferent, or cooperative with adults, depending on mood

Teen with ODD

  • Seems to look for other students who struggle with rules and societal expectations
  • Insults or argues with adults on consistent basis

References

https://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/caqdevelopment.asp

https://www.empoweringparents.com/article/young-kids-with-odd-is-it-oppositional-defiant-disorder-or-just-bratty-behavior/

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